Summer 2014

It is already Fall as Summer 2014 is in memory lane. Sorry for the delay due to the ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa. Summer felt different from past summers. Not as hot as it has been in the past. This how Summer 2014 stacked up for America, Texas, and Southeast Texas in terms of temperature and rainfall from June to August.

America 2014 Summer
Mean Temperature: 71.68°F
Total Rainfall: 9.42

American Summer (1895-2014)
Temperature
Mean: 71.53°F
Median: 71.62°F
Standard Deviation: 0.98
Lowest: 69.08°F (1915)
Highest: 74.00°F (1936)

America did not have a hot Summer for sure. It was an average Summer as it is close to the mean. Summer 2014 is cooler compared to the past summer from 2010 to 2013. Here is a bell curve of American Summer temperature average.

USASummer2014Temperature

In terms of rainfall, America had the 8th wettest Summer on record. It is because of the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes had near record wet Summer. Here is a statistic of American Summer rainfall.

American Summer (1895-2014)
Rainfall
Mean: 8.35
Median: 8.39
Standard Deviation: 0.78
Lowest: 6.08 (1930)
Highest: 10.50 (1928)

Summer 2014 is outside the standard deviation of the mean. It was indeed an abnormally wet Summer for America. A little interesting thing to notice, the wettest and driest Summer on record for America happened two years apart. Here’s a bell curve of American Summer rainfall total.

USASummer2014Rainfall

It is close to be an outlier. Almost close to the 95th percentile, but is outside the 90th percentile range, which makes it an anomaly.

Let’s take a look at the Lone Star State.

Texas 2014 Summer
Mean Temperature: 81.63°F
Total Rainfall: 7.30

Texas Summer (1895-2014)
Temperature
Mean: 81.36°F
Median: 81.40°F
Standard Deviation: 1.35
Lowest: 78.70°F (1976)
Highest: 86.80°F (2011)

Texas did not have a hot Summer as it was quite normal in terms of mean. The Summer between 2010 to 2013 were hot, so it is considered a cool spell. Here’s a bell curve of Texas Summer temperature.

TexasSummer2014Temperature

Summer 2014 is within standard deviation as show in this histogram and bell curve. Abnormally cool and hot summers are outliers like 1976 and 2011. They are a rarity and are 1 in 10,000 event.

Summer rainfall in Texas is also normal as it is within average. It is wetter than last summer, which was rather dry. Summer 2011 was very dry and hot as drought ravaged Texas. Summer 2007 was very wet as it rained all the time. Wonder what rainfall is like in the Summer in Texas?

Texas Summer (1895-2014)
Rainfall
Mean: 7.61
Median: 7.41
Standard Deviation: 2.10
Lowest: 2.46 (2011)
Highest: 13.62 (2007)

Here is a bell curve of Summer Texas rainfall.

TexasSummer2014Rainfall

Summer 2014 rainfall in Texas is average as it is close to the mean. A very dry or wet summer is an outlier like 2007 and 2011. Come to think of it, Summer is an outlier in terms of temperature and rainfall, very warm and dry. So, how did Upper Texas Coast fare in Summer 2014?

Upper Texas Coast 2014 Summer
Mean Temperature: 83.00°F
Total Rainfall: 9.85

Upper Texas Coast Summer (1895-2014)
Temperature
Mean: 82.34°F
Median: 82.29°F
Standard Deviation: 1.01
Lowest: 79.97°F (1903)
Highest: 86.07°F (2011)

Summer 2014 had an average temperature of 83°F and ties with 1990 as the 23rd warmest Summer on record. It is within the standard deviation of the mean, so not really an abnormally warm summer when you look at it. Rather interesting despite the fact that there has been no 100 day in Houston, a first since 1997. So, how is this possible? The Divisional Weather has average lows and highs. Let’s take a look at it.

Upper Texas Coast 2014 Summer
Low Mean: 74.33°F
High Mean: 91.60°F

Here is statistics for Summer low and high temeprature for Upper Texas Coast.

Upper Texas Coast Summer Low Temperature Average (1895-2014)
Mean: 73.07°F
Median: 73.13°F
Standard Deviation: 0.86
Lowest: 71.00°F (1903)
Highest: 75.83°F (1998)

The average low for Summer 2014 is above the standard deviation, which means the night time temperature is warmer than normal. In fact, Summer 2014 is the seventh warmest low temperature on record going back to 1895. Here is a list of top 10 warmest low temperature for Upper Texas Coast.
1.) 1998 75.83°F
2.) 2010 75.80°F
3.) 2011 75.57°F
4.) 2009 74.77°F
5.) 1993 74.50°F
6.) 1999 74.40°F
7.) 2014 74.33°F
8.) 1958 74.30°F
9.) 2012 74.27°F
10.) 1951/1980 74.13°F

The unusually warm low temperature is from the humidity, which keeps it from going down too low at night or too high in the day time. Summer 2014 was more humid than past Summers for Upper Texas Coast. In terms of high temperatures, it right on average. It is nothing like Summer 2011, which was very hot. Summer 2010 had warm low temperatures, which made it warm despite not seeing many 100 degree days that Summer. Of course we could not complain about the cool Summer of 1919.

Upper Texas Coast Summer High Temperature Average (1895-2014)
Mean: 91.60°F
Median: 91.47°F
Standard Deviation: 1.41
Lowest: 88.63°F (1919)
Highest: 96.57°F (2011)

Summer 2014 high temperatures are right on average, so not a bad Summer after all. Sometimes Summers are very warm despite high temperatures being normal because the low temperatures are very warm at night. It is the devil in the details. Anyways, here is a bell curve of Summer temperature average.

UpperTexasCoastSummer2014Temperature

Upper Texas Coast Summer (1895-2014)
Rainfall
Mean: 12.24
Median: 11.11
Standard Deviation: 4.72
Lowest: 5.03 (1930)
Highest: 25.85 (1900)

In terms of rainfall, less than 10 inches of rain fell from June to August. Some areas got more rain than other areas. Coastal areas received less rain than inland areas. That would explain why Upper Texas Coast as a whole did not get over 10 inches of rain this past summer. It is within standard deviation of the average Summer rainfall total. Thankfully, Summer 2014 is not in the top 20 driest Summer. Here is a bell curve of Upper Texas Coast Summer rainfall.

UpperTexasCoastSummer2014Rainfall

The histogram and bell curve is skewed to the left. Summer 2014 is within standard deviation from the mean and median, so it was not an abnormally dry Summer. A dry or wet Summer is an anomaly like 1900 or 1930. Summer 2011 is up there in terms of dry Summer. Summer 2011 is truly an extreme Summer for Texas and Upper Texas Coast as it was very dry and warm.

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